Famous battles

Crécyis a village in the south of France in the department of Somme near Abberville. One of the most terrible battles of the Middle Ages and also one of the most decisive battles of all time was waged in its immediate Battle of Crécyvicinity. Invading troops of about 20,000 Englishmen led by King Edward III (who reigned between 1327-1377) was outnumbered by about 60,000 Frenchmenheaded by King Philip (1328-1350). The battle ended with a clear-cut English victory, who depended upon foot archers and took advantage of the disorderly French heavy cavalry.

This battle is also notable for Czech history because of Czech King Jan of Luxembourg, who brought a support force of several thousand armor-clad knights to the rescue of the French. This famous warrior, who was already completely blind at the time, died a hero’s death in the battle. Charles IV, his son and future king of Bohemia, also took part in the battle.

The battle at Crécy was only one of many incidents of the Hundred Years’ War, which was in fact a series of eight great conflicts, and plunged Britain and France into war for more than 100 years (1337-1453).

From a purely military point of view, Crécy was an undoubted victory of disciplined infantry in an open field over the best cavalry in Europe. Additionally, Edward presented himself as a master of tactics of his time. He understood the impact of disciplined infantry on cavalry, and was aware of the devastating shooting power of his archers. Edward made the most of the army he had under his command.

Commander:Edward III

Army: Approx 20,000 soldiers
Left Wing: Count of Northampton and Count Arundel, Bishop of Durham with 1,000 armor-clad cavalrymen and 3,000 archers
Right Wing: Black Prince, Count of Warwick and Count of Oxford with 1,000 armor-clad cavalrymen, 1,000 Welsh light-armed cavalrymen and 3,000 archers
Reserve: King Edward with 700 armor-clad cavalrymen and 2,000 archers

Commander: King Philip VI

Army: Exact numbers are not known and estimates differ. There were files of 6,000 Genoese crossbow shooters led by Odon Dorioa and Carl Grimaldi and 12,000 knights and armor-clad cavalrymen

Basic facts

Grunwald is a village in northern Poland, 30 km south from Olzstyn. In its nearness there was one of the biggest and most important European battles of the Middle Ages. Two allied forces both Polish and Lithuanian of about 50 000 men led by the Polish king Vladislav and the Lithuanian prince Vitold fought against The Order of German Knights of about 40 000 men which was led by its Grand master Ulrich von Juningen.

Battle on the contemporaneous pictureThe battle ended up by crushing defeat of the Order of German Knights.

The battle is memorable for the Czech history thanks to the participation of Czech free - lances in the fight on the coalition’s side and especially the participation of Jan Zizka from Trocnov. He became the chief commander of the Hussite troops and through him the fame of the Czech war strategy and tactics spread throughout the whole Europe.

The battle meant the beginning of the end of the Order of German Knights.

From the military point of view the battle was a typical war conflict of the time. The war luck used to swing the index hand from one side of the scale to the other to end up on the ally’s side finally. 


The Order of German Knights
Commander: Grand master Ulrich von Juningen

Army: 20 000 Knights and hoplites, 20 000 foot soldiers (bowmen and lancers)
Left Wing: Fridrich Wallenrod
Right Wing: Konrad from Lichtenstein
Reserve: Ulrich von Juningen
Engraving The Polish and the Lithuanians
Commanders: the Polish king Vladislav and the Lithuanian prince Vitold

Left Wing: 50 000, 20 000 of it Polish knights and other horse guards, 11 000 Lithuanian and Zmud light horsemen 1500 Crimean Tatars, 17 000 Polish, Czech, Russian, Vlach and Serbian foot soldiers
Right Wing: Zyndram from Maskowic

Before the battle

Medieval crusades did not aim only to re-conquest Jerusalem and the holy places in Palestina. They also made heavy attempts to expulse the Moslems out of Spain or they marched along the Baltic Mediterranean under the pretence to convert the Prussians and the Lithuanians into Christianity. But at that time both Poland and Lithuania were Christian! In the 15th century the powerful secural state, which the Order at that time was, threatened even the unity of Poland.

In 1386 Poland and Lithuania created single front against the Germans by unifying the two states through the marriage between the Queen of Poland and the Lithuanian prince Vitold.

In the last months of 1409 the uprising on Zmud territory, which belonged to the Order, initiated the battle.

The Lithuanians supported the uprising with intention.

Vladislav and Vitold udertook planned attacks at the Germans in order to recapture their seat town Malbork and to make impossible the German knights concentrate their forces. SoVladislav pretended attacks at Pomoøany , western Prussia and Tilssit and by doing that he divided the German forces.

On July 9, 1410 the allies invaded Prussia with an army of more than 50.000 men. Among them there were 20.000 Polish horsemen, 11.000 Lithuanian light horsemen, 1.500 Crimean Tatars and a lot of foot soldiers including the Czech mercenaries led by Jan Žižka, the Russians, the Valachs and the Serbians.

The allies continued to march towards the Dwerca river, where the Germans took their defensive position. Vladislav marched further to the north towards the town Dabrowno to entice the Germans away from their positions. The Polish conquered the port, killed the defenders and drew off.

They took their position in expectation what the enemies’ reaction would be.

The Grand master added another 3.000 men to his troops in Malbork, he swam across the Dwerca river and headed towards the villages of Grunwald and Tannenburg with the intention to make Vladislav fight.

Course of the battle

The German army of about 40.000 men consisted of 20.000 horsemen and 20.000 foot soldiers and bowmen, started to march against the Polish at the dawn of July 15. The Polish army gathered on the south and west sides of the Lubien lake . The Germans took their positions on the east side of the Polish army. The German knights had formed 52 units. Hundreds of flags and banners, some of them carrying Christian symbols , the others had various heraldic dragons, bulls and lions on, but above all of the flags there flew a flag of the Order of German Knights - golden cross in black hem, in its middle there was a black eagle in golden field. The Grand master ordered to place a line of obstacles in front of his knights to held the enemy back. Bowmen and English mercenaries - lancers were placed behind the obstacles.

Von Juningen evidently decided for defensive strategy and he also Flags of the Orderinsisted on it. His commanders urged him to attack the Polish, but he refused to do it and so he threw away the chance to attack the awkward, undisciplined and indecisive to fight, Polish army.

The battle was initiated by Juningen as he sent two of his knights carrying pulled out swords and a message, that said, the knights should help the Polish fight because the Polish do not dare to start fighting.

Vladislav accepted the challenge and he commanded to start the fight. Shortly after nine o’clock, the Polish - Lithuanian troops set in movement towards the stable German rows. All the Polish knights were marked with a bunch of straw on their left arms just for recognition. The German knights’ white coats with black crosses on them made the distant hill as if covered with snow and their swords above their heads shone in the sunlight.

On the contrary to the Christian symbols on Polish flags, the Zmud and Lithuanian rows, which followed the Polish ones, carried enemies heads stuck on bars. 

As the first rows got nearer to the Germans the wild Lithuanian horsemen attacked heavily the German’s left wing, which was nearest to Tanneburg village. The storm swept off German foot soldiers and destroyed the cannons. The attack was finally beaten off by the offensive of the Prussian marshal Fridrich Wallenrod´s knights, who had better positions and armaments. The German horsemen pursued the Lithuanians as far as to the lake where they killed most of them. Only three Smolensk units, which joined their Polish ally, survived the disaster.

Map of the battleVitold dismayed over the collapse of his army asked Vladislav to leave the positions near Ulnowo village about 1,5 km far behind the front. Vladislav and his personal guard of 60 excellent knights, carrying above them a big Krakow flag with silver eagle on purple silk, set off on a march.

The Polish knights, most of them having their helmets decorated with typical fantastic wings and jewellery, pulled back in a heavy fight man against man twenty troops of knights which were positioned in the middle and on the left wing and led by marshal Konrad von Lichtenstein. 

There was a tough fight along the whole front of about 3-5 kilometres. The Wallenrod’s winning knights coming back from the pursuance of the Lithuanians saw that their middle and the right wing are under the pressure. They hurried to help their army and pushed back the Polish right wing, which was created by everywhere present Vitold.

Von Juningen who lingered near Grunwald seeing that the result of the battle is on the waver so he personally led 16 supporting units in the attack. The attack almost broke through the middle of the Polish army.

At that time some of the German knights having left the battle, attacked a group of soldiers who surrounded Vladislav. One knight attacked even the king but the knight was knocked down from his horse by king´s secretary and killed by king´s guard. Vitold succeeded in getting together a large group of Lithuanians and Tatars, who escaped from the battle, and he attacked the Germans’ nape and encircled them. At that moment the excellent rows of German knights suddenly fell into danger. This final and important blow came from an unexpected side and marked the beginning of the collapse of the best what the Order had ever had.

After killing or capturing of the commanders, the ordinary soldiers tried to escape but they were pursued by the Lithuanians horsemen. Among those who were killed there was the Grand master of the Order as well as his deputy marshal and hundreds of distinguished German brothers of the Order.

The battle took ten hours and with the number of soldiers and dead belongs to the most blooded and the biggest of the Middle Ages.

18 000 killed men were left behind on the battlefield, 14 000 Germans were taken into the captivity. Only 15 of altogether 700 "white coat" brothers of the Order survived and were captured. The Polish took all the 52 flags of the Order and hanged them in Krakow cathedral.

Final result

Ones powerful German Order was humiliated on the battlefield by Polish - Lithuanian alliance and no one of the well informed observers throughout Europe would think that the alliance would be able to do such a thing. The German Order had been defeated many times in its history but no defeat was as crushing as the battle at Grunwald. The spirit of crusades in Germany vanished and volunteers from Western Europe did not want to support the Order and its aggression against the non-Christians (the Christian co-religionists).

In 1466 the Order ceded western Prussia to Poland and draw off from Malbork to Kralovec. Slowly the Order declined.

The Czechs and the European art of war

Principality, and later Kingdom of Bohemia is geographically in the center of Europe. Routes from north to south and from west to east crossed it as far back as the Middle Ages. Everybody who wanted to conquer Europe or at least a part of it had to pass through it. There was a saying that was handed down from generation to generation until as late as the 20th century that the one who rules Bohemia rules Europe.

Accordingly, only a nation that was able to form a stable state and repulse practically permanent pressure from the neighbors could live through the conflicts. After unavailing efforts of the Celts and Germans, the Slavs, who tried to occupy the Czech basin three times, partly succeeded in the 4th and 5th centuries AD. Their first two attempts to establish an empire - the Empire of Samo and the Empire of Great Moravia, however, did not withstand the attacks from the east and west.

The third and definitively successful attempt to form a Slavic state was undertook by the Premyslid dynasty, which in the course of the 10th century united the Slavic tribes living in a basin protected by mountains. It was the birth of the Czech state and Czech nation.

The Czech Premyslid rulers had to resist attacks from their neighbors. Rich and fruitful Bohemia and Moravia were tempting loot. Attacks were charged predominantly from the west from Germany, but also from the North from Poland, and from the South from Austria, less often from Hungary. When the attacks were fought off, punitive actions were taken, and the Czechs normally made a raid into enemy territory. After the country suffered damage from the invaders the equivalent harm was then inflicted on them.

Czech military activity in the Middle Ages was not only limited to protection of the country and ferocious counterattacks. Important war campaigns aimed at obtaining territorial gains and retaining them were launched. Many Czech rulers (Boleslav II, Premysl I, Premysl II, Vaclav II, Jan of Luxembourg, Charles IV) reigned not only in the Czech lands, but also temporarily in the whole of Central Europe or its substantial part. They influenced the course of events in entire Europe. They took a great interest in the events happening as far as the coasts of the Atlantic, Baltic, and Adriatic. Emperors and popes curried favor with them. These and also other great Czech monarchs sent Czech armies to fight a long way from their homeland. They battled for their cause or came to the rescue of their allies. The Czechs became famous as a formidable, brave, and merciless enemy. They were the first to fall upon the enemy, crossed flooded rivers, fought against overwhelming odds, but also plundered ruthlessly.

King Premysl II died in a battle in Austria, Jan of Luxembourg in France, and other rulers died natural deaths in war expeditions or while preparing them. Fighting was main occupation of Czech medieval aristocracy, who accompanied their rulers. In the times of Jan of Luxembourg people used to say that there was no real fight without a Czech king

A separate chapter in the history of Czech military art was the first half of the 15th century. Czech peasants, followers of the teachings of the Bohemian religious reformer John Huss destroyed the superior strength of elite armor-clad warriors standing behind a barricade of wagons. They used firearms for the first time in field battles on a massive scale. They excelled because they were tenacious, uncompromising, and fought to the last breath. They were respected all over Europe. Local craftsmen, who laid the foundations for Czech military production, supplied their weapons.

When the Czech state was integrated into the Habsburg monarchy in 1526, the new sovereigns were glad they could use the military mastery of the Czechs. They proved their talents not only as courageous commanders and soldiers, but they often served in technical units and artillery due to their traditional education and ability to improvise.

Czech soldiers in the service of the Habsburgs defended Vienna between 1529 and 1683, fought for both sides of Thirty Years‘ War, defeated the Prussians at the battle of Kolin, but were beaten near Hradec Kralove. Czech volunteers took part in Balkan wars as well as American War of Independence. Other Czechs massively produced weapons.

Several key European battles took place in Bohemia, Moravia or their vicinity - Battle of Lech, Moravian Field, Lützen, Jankov, Kolin, Slavkov, Leipzig, and Hradec Kralove.

Czech military history is still topical. There are hundreds of groups of historical fencing well known across Europe. Castles, strongholds, and cities are being recaptured. Military historical clubs organize dozens of demonstrations of battles waged in recent or distant past in the heart of Europe.